Generally, abnormality refers to: However, all these definitions have a problem.
In the second century c.
The psychological model gained support when French physician JeanMartin Charcot used hypnosis to distinguish hysterical paralysis with no organic cause from neurologically based paralysis.
When Charcot hypnotized patients, those with hysterical paralysis could use their supposedly paralyzed body part. One of his students, Austrian physician Sigmund Freudexpanded this approach.
Freud and others believed that mental disorders usually begin with a traumatic event in childhood and can be treated with psychotherapy, a form of "talking cure. A psychoanalytic model, stemming from Freud, emphasizes the role of parental influences, unconscious conflicts, guilt, frustration, and an array of defense mechanisms that people use, unconsciously, to ward off anxiety.
According to this view, people develop psychological problems because they have inner conflicts intense enough to overwhelm their normal defenses.
Freud thought that all people have some aspects of their personality that are innate and self-preserving the idsome aspects of their personality that are learned rules or conscience the superegoand some aspects of their personality that are realistic the ego.
For example, the id of a person who is hungry wants to eat immediately, in any manner, regardless of the time or Models of abnormality conventions.
However, it may be time to meet with the supervisor for an important review. The superego insists on meeting with the supervisor right now, for as long as necessary.
People must somehow harmonize the instinctual and unreasoning desires of the id, the moral and restrictive demands of the superego, and the rational and realistic requirements of the ego. Conflicts between the id, ego, and superego may lead to unpleasant and anxious feelings.
People develop defense mechanisms to handle these feelings. Defense mechanisms can alleviate anxiety by staving off the conscious awareness of conflicts that would be too painful to acknowledge.
A psychoanalytic view is that everyone uses defense mechanisms, and abnormality is simply the result of overblown defense mechanisms. Some of the most prominent defense mechanisms are repression, regression, displacement, reaction formation, sublimation, and projection. In repression, a person forgets something that causes anxiety.
For example, a student who genuinely forgets her meeting with her professor about a make-up test has repressed the appointment. In regression, a person reverts back to activities and feelings of a younger age.
For example, a toddler who reclaims his old discarded bottle when a new baby sister comes on the scene is regressing. In displacement, a person has very strong feelings toward one person but feels for some reason unable to express them. Subsequently, she finds herself expressing these feelings toward a safer person.
For example, a person who is extremely angry with her boss at work may keep these feelings to herself until she gets home but then find herself very angry with her husband, children, and pets. In reaction formation, people have very strong feelings that are somehow unacceptable, and they react in the opposite way.
For example, a person who is campaigning against adult bookstores in the community may be secretly fascinated with pornography. In sublimation, a person rechannels energy, typically sexual energy, into socially acceptable outlets.
For example, a woman who is attracted to the young men in swimsuits at the pool may decide to swim one hundred laps. In projection, people notice in others traits or behaviors that are too painful to admit in themselves. All defense mechanisms are unconscious ways to handle anxiety.
The psychoanalytic model opened up areas for discussion that were previously taboo and helped people to understand that some of their motivations are outside their own awareness. In dissociative identity disorder, formerly termed multiple personality, the individual alternates between an original or primary personality and one or more secondary or subordinate personalities.
A psychoanalytic model would see dissociative identity disorder as stemming from massive repression to ward off unacceptable impulses, particularly those of a sexual nature.
These yearnings increase during adolescence and adulthood, until the person finally expresses them, often in a guilt-inducing sexual act. Then, normal forms of repression are ineffective in blocking out this guilt, so the person blocks the acts and related thoughts entirely from consciousness by developing a new identity for the dissociated bad part of self.
The psychoanalytic model views all human behavior as a product of mental or psychological causes, though the cause may not be obvious to an outside observer or even to the person performing the behavior. Psychoanalytic influence on the modern perspective of abnormality has been enormous.
Freudian concepts, such as Freudian slips and unconscious motivation, are so well known that they are now part of ordinary language and culture. However, the psychoanalytic model has been criticized because it is not verifiable, because it gives complex explanations when simple and straightforward ones are sufficient, because it cannot be proven wrong lacks disconfirmabilityand because it was based mainly on a relatively small number of upper-middle-class European patients and on Freud himself.Each of the models of abnormality would provide a different outlook on the thefts mind frame.
The medical model of abnormality suggests that the cause of abnormal behavior could be found in a physical examination, which may show a hormonal imbalance, a chemical deficiency, or a brain injury. Abnormal psychology is a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to the members of a given society.
Culture and Abnormality Abnormal Psychology Models Summary What has neuroscience ever done for us? PowerPoint Downloads. Abnormal Psychology Introduction Abnormal Psychology . The psychological model of abnormality also stems from ancient Greece.
In the second century c.e., the Greek physician Galen described a patient whose symptoms. Models of abnormality are general hypotheses as to the nature of psychological abnormalities.
The four main models to explain psychological abnormality are the biological, behavioural, cognitive, and psychodynamic models.
Models Of Abnormality essaysIn the not so far away past people used to suggest witchcraft and superstition as the cause of abnormal behavior. Today we find that those beliefs are not so realistic. There are six major models of abnormality that suggest the cause of abnormal behavior: medical model.
Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality. Introduction. The many different models used to explain the nature and treatment of mental illness compound the problems of defining and classifying abnormal behaviour.