Integrating styles and intelligences can help children learn in many ways—not just in the areas of their strengths. In the 20th century, two great theories have been put forward in an attempt to interpret human differences and to design educational models around these differences.
Showing Students the Appeal of a Subject Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivators include fascination with the subject, a sense of its relevance to life and the world, a sense of accomplishment in mastering it, and a sense of calling to it. Students who are intrinsically motivated might say things like the following.
Intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-sustaining. Efforts to build this kind of motivation are also typically efforts at promoting student learning. Such efforts often focus on the subject rather than rewards or punishments. On the other hand, efforts at fostering intrinsic motivation can be slow to affect behavior and can require special and lengthy preparation.
Students are individuals, so a variety of approaches may be needed to motivate different students. Also, it helps if the instructor is interested in the subject to begin with! Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivators include parental expectations, expectations of other trusted role models, earning potential of a course of study, and grades which keep scholarships coming.
Students who are extrinsically motivated might say things like the following. Extrinsic motivators more readily produce behavior changes and typically involve relatively little effort or preparation. Also, efforts at applying extrinsic motivators often do not require extensive knowledge of individual students.
On the other hand, extrinsic motivators can often distract students from learning the subject at hand.
It can be challenging to devise appropriate rewards and punishments for student behaviors. Often, one needs to escalate the rewards and punishments over time to maintain a certain effect level.
Also, extrinsic motivators typically do not work over the long term.
Once the rewards or punishments are removed, students lose their motivation. In one series of experiments, psychologist Edward Deci had two groups of college students play with a puzzle called Soma.
He found that the group that was paid to solve puzzles stopped solving puzzles as soon as the experiment—and the payment—ended.
They had found the puzzles intrinsically interesting. Deci argued that the group that had been paid to solve puzzles might have found the puzzles intrinsically interesting as well, but the extrinsic, monetary reward had reduced their intrinsic interest.
Effects of Motivation on Learning Styles Deep learners respond well to the challenge of mastering a difficult and complex subject. These are intrinsically motivated students who are often a joy to teach! Strategic learners are motivated primarily by rewards.
They react well to competition and the opportunity to best others. Handle strategic learners by avoiding appeals to competition.
Appeal to their intrinsic interest in the subject at hand. Design your assignments tests, papers, projects, etc.The relationship between learning styles and motivation to transfer of learning in a vocational training programme Relación entre estilos de aprendizaje y.
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