The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property. History of engineering Relief map of the Citadel of Lilledesigned in by Vaubanthe foremost military engineer of his age. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever, wheel and pulley. The term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to when an engine'er literally, one who operates an engine referred to "a constructor of military engines.
The need may be to improve an existing situation or to eliminate a problem. In any case, it is what engineering is all about—using knowledge and know-how to achieve a desired outcome.
Each engineering design, software application or device project should have a clear engineering goal which can fit the following model statement: You may get suggestions from teachers, advisors or mentors.
Be sure to use the web www. Quality entries from previous fairs are good sources of ideas and best practices. Engineering science projects high school technology curricula address the engineering design process, and Engineering science projects college and professional engineering societies have on-line resources.
You will use the engineering design process to create your fair entry. The process is iterative, meaning the designer will often repeat steps until he or she is confident the design will meet the needs. The Engineering Design Process: Define a need; express as a goal Establish design criteria and constraints Evaluate alternative designs Build a prototype of best design Test and evaluate the prototype using the design criteria Analyze test results, make design changes, and retest Communicate the design Step 1.
Identify a need The need also called the problem you are solving or the Engineering Goal is frequently identified by customers—the users of the product. The customer could be a retail consumer or the next team in a product development.
Customers may express needs by describing a product I need a car or as a functional requirement I need a way to get to school. The need should be described in a simple statement that includes what you are designing the productwho it is for customerwhat need does it satisfy problem to solveand how does it improve previous designs easier to use, less expensive, more efficient, safer.
Establish design criteria and constraints Design criteria are requirements you specify that will be used to make decisions about how to build and evaluate the product.
Criteria are derived from needs expressed by customers.
Some examples of measurable criteria include length in cm, km, etc. Some typical constraints are cost, time, and knowledge; legal issues; natural factors such as topography, climate, raw materials; and where the product will be used. Good designs will meet important design criteria within the limits fixed by the constraints.
Good designs are also economical to make and use because cost is always a design constraint! Evaluate alternative designs and create your test plan Your research into possible solutions will reveal what has been done to satisfy similar needs.
You should consider at least two or three alternative designs and consider using available technology, modifying current designs, or inventing new solutions.
Superior work will demonstrate tradeoff analyses such as comparing the strength vs. Can you defend your choices to the judges? You will develop an initial test plan describing how you will test the design criteria and constraints you listed in Step 2. Many engineering design projects will require pre-approval from the SRC.
A risk assessment form 3 is required for any project using hazardous chemicals, activities or devices and microorganisms exempt from pre-approval. If you will involve humans in your product testing, you will be required to fill out a Human Participant Research Plan. The exemption to this requirement is if your invention does not pose a risk, and it is being tested only by yourself or your team members.
Build a prototype of best design Use your alternative analyses to choose the design that best meets criteria considering the constraints, then build a prototype.
A prototype is the first full scale and usually functional form of a new type or design. Test and evaluate the prototype against important design criteria to show how well the product meets the need You must test your prototype under actual or simulated operating conditions.
Make sure you test all of your criteria and constraints to evaluate the success of your prototype.
Customers are usually involved in product testing so be sure you have SRC approval if people are involved. Analyze test results, make design changes and retest Testing will disclose some deficiencies in your design. As always, document your analyses, fixes, and retests in your notebook.
Use your notebook and the fair exhibit to communicate the design to your customer and the judges.
Your product description will be conveyed in drawings, photos, materials lists, assembly instructions, test plans and results. Prepare Prepare your engineering project exhibit board.Here's Engineering Projects For Kids to get that them excited about construction, design, electronics, and more.
The Homeschool Scientist taking the fear out of and putting the fun into homeschool science. Symbiont is here to help you please the public you serve, whether in product or service.
Our award-winning, innovative projects result in repeat clients from public institutions, municipalities, retail, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, and leading companies in . Moved Permanently. The document has moved here. EA is a % employee-owned public benefit corporation that provides environmental, compliance, natural resources, and infrastructure engineering and management solutions to a wide range of public and private sector clients.
Here's Engineering Projects For Kids to get that them excited about construction, design, electronics, and more. Egg Floatation (a science fair project) Buoyancy related science projects are often based on the real application of this science.
This experiment shows how you can make an egg to sink, float or submerge.