Classification[ edit ] Dysgraphia is nearly always accompanied by other learning disabilities such as dyslexia or attention deficit disorder   and this can impact the type of dysgraphia a person might have. There are three principal subtypes of dysgraphia that are recognized. There is little information available about different types of dysgraphia and there are likely more subtypes than the ones listed below. Some children may have a combination of two or more of these, and individual symptoms may vary in presentation from what is described here.
Developing these abilities is a lengthy and challenging process for many children, not only those with learning disabilities. However, learning disabilities may impact writing in numerous ways and may make tasks involving written expression particularly arduous.
For instance, children with reading disabilities often have serious difficulties with spelling that adversely affect writing; disabilities involving oral language, such as vocabulary weaknesses, may affect written as well as oral expression.
Writing disabilities also can exist in the absence of any other type of learning disability. Effective teaching of written expression requires accurate assessment of underlying component abilities and a comprehensive program of instruction that addresses all of the abilities needed for good writing.
Effective Kindergarten through Grade Four Instruction Writing instruction in the beginning and middle elementary grades should attend to three broad areas: Explicit, systematic teaching of specific writing skillssuch as correct letter formation, capitalization of proper nouns, elimination of sentence fragments, and use of descriptive wordsis very important, as are opportunities to practice and apply learned skills in writing sentences and paragraphs.
Because good writing involves learning and coordinating so many different abilities, and because struggling writers often have weaknesses in multiple areas, it can be helpful to begin by focusing on a few specific skills that will impact the writing of a particular child the most. For example, a youngster whose writing is virtually unreadable due to extremely poor spelling and lack of spacing between words might benefit most initially by learning to spell a set of common words and to space between words.
When those skills have been learned, instruction can move on to the next set of skills.
|Enter the Laptop||But cursive may be making a comeback because of—rather than in spite of— technology. New technologies like Windows Ink from Microsoft and Interactive Ink from MyScript Labs use real-time predictive handwriting recognition, eliminating the need for a keyboard.|
|How Handwriting Trains the Brain - WSJ||However, in my opinion, the rationale cited in this article regarding the pros and cons of handwriting focused on the wrong argument. Placing cursive handwriting in the same category of skill as keyboarding is similar to categorizing flying a kite and a Boeing as being synonymous.|
From the earliest grades, instruction in basic writing skills should occur in the context of a more comprehensive writing program that encourages children to express their thoughts in writing and to write for enjoyment.
Once children have acquired at least a few basic mechanics and some ability to express their thoughts in writing, they can be introduced to the idea that good writing involves a process of planning, revising, and generating multiple drafts of important pieces of work.
Approaches to the writing process vary, but many approaches describe an initial prewriting stage, during which children develop ideas and plan content; a composing stage, in which a draft is written; a revision stage, which involves making improvements in content, such as clarifying ideas or elaborating relevant details; and an editing stage, which involves correcting errors in mechanics such as spelling and punctuation.
Even at the elementary level, these steps may be repeated several times in the production of an important piece of writing. Constructive feedback from teachers and peers is crucial in the acquisition of processes of planning, revising, and editing written work.
The use of the writing process is complementary to, not a substitute for, direct instruction in specific writing conventions and content aspects of writing. However, it is vital for children in generaland youngsters with learning disabilities in particularto understand that good writing involves considerable planning and rewriting.
Struggling writers sometimes view the need to rewrite as a sign of failure, but to the contrary, repeated revision is a hallmark of good, not poor, writing.
A variety of strategies, such as those for proofreading and organizing content, can be especially valuable in helping children learn how to plan and revise their writing. For instance, children might be taught a strategy for organizing a story using the narrative text structure elements of a setting, characters, problem, series of events, and resolution.
A typical proofreading strategy might involve having children reread a draft several times, each time focusing on one specific category of possible errors, such as mistakes in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and sentence structure.
Although content aspects of writing are always important, the content demands of writing in the early grades are relatively low and unconstrained, frequently involving free writing in journals or creative writing. Early intervention with struggling writers during these years is critical, so that children develop the foundation of writing skills they will need for the much more complex writing demands of the later grades.
Effective Writing Instruction Beyond Grade Four Beyond grade four, normally-achieving youngsters generally have accurate and reasonably automatic handwriting skills, although further developments in speed may continue.
The academic emphasis is increasingly on content aspects of writing, with content demands growing much more sophisticated, and good written expression becomes important to success in many different subjects. For example, children may write to convey new information they have learned in areas such as history or science, to explain and justify an opinion on a social issue in a health class, or to analyze themes in a novel they have read in an English class.
However, even for normally-achieving students, many conventions of writing e. Attention to mechanics as well as content in writing instruction remains important into high school.
Because students are expected to produce increasingly lengthy and complex pieces of work, the effective use of higher-level planning and revision processes in writing is essential. At middle and secondary grade levels, students have greater independence in using these processes and are less reliant on guidance from adults than at the elementary level.
However, constructive feedback from teachers and peers remains important to growth in written expression.
Older children with writing disabilities often continue to struggle with lower-level skill impairmentssuch as labored handwriting, poor spelling, or difficulties with punctuation and sentence structurethat tend to adversely affect content.
For example, a youngster with a reading disability may have a rich oral vocabulary but may use only simple words in writing due to lack of knowledge of how to spell multisyllabic words. Difficulties with handwriting or other mechanics may make writing so laborious that children lose motivation to write even when they have interesting ideas and an extensive knowledge base.
Use of technologyincluding but not limited to word processing, spell-checking, and grammar-checking programscan help to make the process of writing and especially revision less burdensome. However, to make optimal use of technology, students with writing disabilities require direct teaching of keyboarding and other computer skills.
A youngster whose writing difficulties revolve around handwriting will have different instructional needs than one whose problems primarily involve an impoverished vocabulary or limited knowledge of conventions.
Thus, assessment of component strengths and weaknesses is essential to instructional planning.Cursive Handwriting in Reception - or not? Ruth's Blog. What is cursive handwriting? ‘Cursive’ or ‘joined-up’ handwriting is any style of writing where letters are joined to make writing faster.
Handwriting in the 21st Century? Research Shows Why Handwriting Belongs in Today’s Classroom increase in the quantity of students’ writing.5 Dr. Virginia Berninger, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Washington, reports when comparing writing, typing, tracing, • I.
How Handwriting Trains the Brain Using advanced tools such as magnetic resonance imaging, researchers are finding that writing by hand is more than just a way to communicate. The practice.
The latest business craze seems like a throwback to a bygone era. Basically, it's writing stuff rutadeltambor.com "Bullet Journals" and you'll see that within a few years of Rydell Carroll introducing "BuJos," they've become all the rage. Brooks, A., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., & Richards, T.
() Letter naming and letter writing reversals of some children with dyslexia: Symptoms of inefficient phonological and orthographic loops of working memory? Berninger ). Handwriting is a foundation skill that needs to be developed first and will influence students’ reading, writing, language use, Handwriting Keyboarding Handwriting standards provide guidance for assessing students’ handwriting skills at every level—from readiness, to print and cursive.