Page 25 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics. The National Academies Press.
The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberiaa region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic foxlynxsablesea otter and stoat ermine. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, and later for the northern fur sealthe Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska.
The fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberiathe Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian NovosibirskTyumen and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating.
Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. Siberian fur trade From as early as the 10th century, merchants and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia.
They began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals.
Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe.
Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in and In Ivan IVthe Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains.
At this point the phrase "ruler of ObdorKondaand all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir whose land they encroached on. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that eventually culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area.
Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia as Russian expansion continued. By Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.
Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard currency.
Fur trading allowed Russia to purchase from Europe goods that it lacked, like lead, tin, precious metals, textiles, firearms, and sulphur.
Russia also traded furs with Ottoman Turkey and other countries in the Middle East in exchange for silk, textiles, spices, and dried fruit. The high prices that sable, black fox, and marten furs could generate in international markets spurred a "fur fever" in which many Russians moved to Siberia as independent trappers.
From totens of thousands of sable and other valuable pelts were obtained in Siberia each year. Yasak was usually a fixed number of sable pelts which every male tribe member who was at least fifteen years old had to supply to Russian officials.
At first, Russians were content to trade with the natives, exchanging goods like pots, axes, and beads for the prized sables that the natives did not value, but greater demand for furs led to violence and force becoming the primary means of obtaining the furs. The largest problem with the yasak system was that Russian governors were prone to corruption because they received no salary.
They resorted to illegal means of getting furs for themselves, including bribing customs officials to allow them to personally collect yasak, extorting natives by exacting yasak multiple times over, or requiring tribute from independent trappers.
The first was an independent band of blood relatives or unrelated people who contributed an equal share of the hunting-expedition expenses; the second was a band of hired hunters who participated in expeditions fully funded by the trading companies which employed them.
Members of an independent vataga cooperated and shared all necessary work associated with fur trapping, including making and setting traps, building forts and camps, stockpiling firewood and grain, and fishing.
All fur pelts went into a common pool that the band divided equally among themselves after Russian officials exacted the tithing tax. On the other hand, a trading company provided hired fur-trappers with the money needed for transportation, food, and supplies, and once the hunt was finished, the employer received two-thirds of the pelts and the remaining ones were sold and the proceeds divided evenly among the hired laborers.1, Likes, 19 Comments - MIT Architecture (@mitarchitecture) on Instagram: “A quick tour through a review in the Geometric Disciplines course for first year rutadeltambor.com students, ”.
British fur trade continued during the Revolutionary war as before. Quebec, Montreal and Hudson Bay continued to be supplied by England. John Adams felt he did .
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued.
Fur Trade essaysWhen the Europeans came to America, there were fur-bearings animals everywhere. The best quality of furs came from the north, the reason why, is because in the north the animals needed a thicker coat to protect themselves from the harsher winter. Most critically, the fur trade drew the French into close and constant proximity to Aboriginal peoples.
Lacking sufficient manpower and resources to conduct the trade alone, the French depended on Aboriginal peoples for the harvesting, processing, and transportation of furs, and also for their services as guides and intermediaries.
Preface. This textbook is based on the College Entrance Examination Board test in Advanced Placement United States History. The test is a standard on the subject, covering what most students in the United States study in high school and college, so we treat it as the best reference.