Blog Elemental Analysis Elemental analysis, identification and quantification of elemental composition to trace and ultra-trace levels for a diverse range of samples Elemental analysis and testing include identification and quantification of elements in a sample, determination of the elemental composition, and trace level elements.
Natural soil nitrogen or added fertilizers are the usual sources, but nitrogen in the irrigation water has much the same effect as soil-applied fertilizer nitrogen and an excess will cause problems, just as too much fertilizer would.
If excessive quantities are present or applied, production of several commonly grown crops may be upset because of over-stimulation of growth, delayed maturity or poor quality. The most readily available forms of nitrogen are nitrate and ammonium but nitrate NO3 -N occurs most frequently in irrigation water.
Drainage water from below the root zone frequently has higher levels of nitrogen due to deep leaching of fertilizers. Since nitrogen is present in so many water supplies, it is recommended that the nitrogen content of all irrigation water be monitored and the nitrogen present included as an integral part of the planned fertilization programme.
There are many ways of reporting nitrogen since it is combined in various organic and inorganic complexes. The most important factor for plants is the total amount of nitrogen N regardless of whether it is in the form of nitrate-nitrogen NO3-Nammonium-nitrogen NH4-N or organic-nitrogen Org-N.
By reporting in the form of nitrogen, comparisons can be made. In the guidelines of Table 1, it is reported as nitrogen in the form of nitrate NO3-N because this is the usual form found in natural water. For example, sugarbeets, a sensitive crop, increase in size with excessive nitrogen fertilization but the sugar content and sugar purity are lower, thus the total quantity of recoverable sugar produced per hectare may actually be reduced.
Grapes are also sensitive and may continue to grow late into the season at the expense of fruit production. Yields are often reduced and grapes may be late in maturing and have a lower sugar content.
Maturity of fruit such as apricot, citrus and avocado may also be delayed and the fruit may be poorer in quality, thus affecting the marketability and storage life. In many grain crops, excessive vegetative growth produces weak stalks that cannot support the grain weight, resulting in severe lodging and difficulties for machine harvesting.
Lodging is especially serious in areas with high winds or periodic heavy rains. The new short-stature wheats are better adapted and are heavily fertilized without severe lodging. Ruminant animals are sensitive to nitrogen and heavy applications to pastures used for direct or indirect livestock feed may cause excessive quantities to accumulate in the forage.
This may be hazardous to the animals' health. The sensitivity of crops varies with the growth stage. High nitrogen levels may be beneficial during early growth stages but may cause yield losses during the later flowering and fruiting stages. High nitrogen water can be used as a fertilizer early in the season.
However, as the nitrogen needs of the crop diminish later in the growing season, the nitrogen applied to the crop must be substantially reduced.
Blending or changing supplies during the later more critical growth stages should be helpful. Another option is to plant a less sensitive crop, such as maize, which can utilize the nitrogen from the irrigation water more effectively. For crops irrigated with water containing nitrogen, the rates of nitrogen fertilizer supplied to the crop can be reduced by an amount very nearly equal to that available from the water supply.
Crop rotations can be planned to utilize residual nitrogen in the soil during the non-irrigation season. This may also be helpful in reducing the impact in succeeding years.
Very rapid growth of algae can occur when temperature, sunlight and other nutrients are optimum, and may result in plugged valves, pipelines and sprinklers requiring either mechanical controls such as screens and filters, or chemical control, with materials such as copper sulphate. Nitrogen in water also increases maintenance costs for clearing vegetation from canals and drainage channels.
Denitrification to remove NO3-N from the water supply before use may be the only other alternative but is not used because of the high cost of equipment and energy.
Since nitrogen is a valuable resource it should be utilized if possible. The main use of pH in a water analysis is for detecting an abnormal water. The normal pH range for irrigation water is from 6. An abnormal value is a warning that the water needs further evaluation. Irrigation water with a pH outside the normal range may cause a nutritional imbalance or may contain a toxic ion.
This should not cause undue alarm other than to alert the user to a possible imbalance of ions and the need to establish the reason for the adverse pH through full laboratory analysis.
Such water normally causes few problems for soils or crops but is very corrosive and may rapidly corrode pipelines, sprinklers and control equipment. Any change in the soil pH caused by the water will take place slowly since the soil is strongly buffered and resists change.
An adverse pH may need to be corrected, if possible, by the introduction of an amendment into the water, but this will only be practical in a few instances.
It may be easier to correct the soil pH problem that may develop rather than try to treat the water. Lime is commonly applied to the soil to correct a low pH and sulphur or other acid material may be used to correct a high pH.The discovery of the chemical elements known to exist as of is presented in chronological order.
The elements are listed generally in the order in which each was first defined as the pure element, as the exact date of discovery of most elements cannot be accurately determined.
Nickel and Copper: Chemical & Physical Properties. You are here: like copper, is also a decent conductor of heat and electrical current. Nickel is a member of the transitional elements, which is made up of iron and cobalt metals.
It does not give me the chemical properties of nickel! Please take a little time to fix this. Vote Up 0 Vote. A commonly overlooked presence of modern day life, nickel is used in applications in buildings and infrastructure, household equipment, chemical production, and energy supply, to name a few.
Usage Due to the corrosion-resistant properties of nickel, the metal is mostly used in the production of nonferrous alloys and superalloys. Fluorine (F), most reactive chemical element and the lightest member of the halogen elements, or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of the periodic rutadeltambor.com chemical activity can be attributed to its extreme ability to attract electrons (it is the most electronegative element) and to the small size of its atoms.
Volatile solid analysis is an important example for this type of gravimetric analysis. Precipitative gravimetry: The chemical precipitation of an analyte occurs in the precipitative gravimetry. The most important application of this technique in the environmental field is the analysis of sulphite.
As material properties can be made to vary by introduction of alloying elements to the base material, chemical analysis is important to determine and verify grade of material. In addition, certain element use may be restricted in materials and therefore trace analysis is important to demonstrate the element .