Air asia 2 essay

In antiquity, the Great Pyramid of Giza the only wonder from the original list still standingthe statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Colossus of Rhodes a new[1] gigantic, version of which is being built todayand others were among the occupants of the list. In fact, it is not a single wonder, but a whole list of them, but they all revolve around one question:

Air asia 2 essay

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Pre-colonial history[ edit ] Gate of the palace of Ternate Sultanate.

Much of their wealth, however, was wasted fighting each other. Up until the Dutch completed the colonization of Maluku in the 19th century, the sultans of Ternate ruled empires that claimed at least nominal influence as far as AmbonSulawesi and Papua.

It engaged in fierce competition for control of its periphery with the nearby sultanate of Tidore. In part as a result of its trade-dependent culture, Ternate was one of the earliest places in the region to which Islam spread, probably coming from Java in the late 15th century.

Europeans[ edit ] Early map of northern Maluku made during the Age of Discovery. North is on the right, with Ternate as the rightmost followed by TidoreMare, Moti and Makian islands. The bottom is the Gilolo Jailolo or Halmahera Island. The inset on the top is Bacan Island.

Willem BlaeuSultan of Ternates guard. Colonial era painting of Ternate island. Sultan Abu Lais of Ternate heard of their stranding, and, seeing a chance to ally himself with a powerful foreign nation, he brought them to Ternate in The Portuguese were permitted to build a fort Kastella on the island, construction of which began in Relations between the Ternateans and Portuguese were strained from the start.

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He converted to Christianity and changed his name to Dom Manuel. After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne; he died en route in Malacca in When Sultan Hairun was executed and his head exhibited on a pike inMuslim Ternateans rebelled against the Portuguese who were besieged in their castle until when a new Sultan made the castle his palace.

European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-Portuguese state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah r. Spanish and Dutch traders competing for control over the lucrative clove trade played Ternate off against Tidore. The Dutch eventually became the dominant European power although the sultanates were in place almost continually until today.

For the Ternatean rulers, the Dutch were a useful, if not particularly welcome, presence that gave them military advantages against Tidore and the Spanish.

Particularly under Sultan Hamzah r. Dutch influence over the kingdom was limited, though Hamzah and his son and successor, Sultan Mandar Syah r.

Air asia 2 essay

The Spaniards abandoned Ternate and Tidore in When they abandoned Ternate, some of the people accompanied the Spanish in their retreat to the Philippines. In the Philippines, they settled in Ternate, Cavite which they named after their homeland.

In the 18th century Ternate was the site of a VOC governorship, which attempted to control all trade in the northern Moluccas.

Air asia 2 essay

By the 19th century, the spice trade had declined substantially. Hence the region was less central to the Netherlands colonial state, but the Dutch maintained a presence in the region in order to prevent another colonial power from occupying it.

Ternate was occupied by British forces in before being returned to Dutch control in In became the capital of a residency administrative region covering Halmahera, the entire west coast of New Guineaand the central east coast of Sulawesi.

By all of Dutch-occupied New Guinea had been added to the residency, but then its region was gradually transferred to Ambon Amboina before being dissolved into that residency in Wallace concludes the essay with the words [9] This progression, by minute steps, in various directions, but always checked and balanced by the necessary conditions, subject to which alone existence can be preserved, may, it is believed, be followed out so as to agree with all the phenomena presented by organized beings, their extinction and succession in past ages, and all the extraordinary modifications of form, instinct, and habits which they exhibit.

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After Japan surrendered in August and Indonesia declared independence, Ternate was reoccupied in early November by Allied forces intending to return Indonesia to Dutch control. It became part of Maluku province when Indonesia became independent.

Ternate saw some violence in the — sectarian conflict across the Maluku islands, not, however, to the extent of other islands such as nearby Halmahera.A dhobi (laundryman) is seen working at Dhobi Ghat, an open-air laundry in Bombay.

At any given time of the day, some 8, to 10, dhobis can be seen working from the original stalls that date.

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