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Though Islam and the Arabic language were officially dominant under this new regime, the general populace still took time to convert from Christianity and the Syriac language.
In particular, the Maronite community clung to its faith and managed to maintain a large degree of autonomy despite the succession of rulers over Syria.
Muslim influence increased greatly in the seventh century, when the Umayyad capital was established at nearby Damascus.
During the 11th century the Druze faith emerged from a branch of Islam. The new faith gained followers in the southern portion of Lebanon. The Maronites and the Druze divided Lebanon until the modern era.
The major cities on the coast, AcreBeirutand others, were directly 1982 ap english essay by Muslim Caliphs. As a result, the people became increasingly absorbed by Arabic culture.
The result was a series of wars known as the Crusades launched by Latin Christians of mainly French origin in Western Europe to reclaim the former Roman territories in the Eastern Mediterranean, especially Syria and Palestine the Levant.
Lebanon was in the main path of the First Crusade 's advance on Jerusalem. Frankish nobles occupied areas within present-day Lebanon as part of the southeastern Crusader States. The southern half of present-day Lebanon formed the northern march of the Kingdom of Jerusalem ; the northern half was the heartland of the County of Tripoli.
Although Saladin eliminated Christian control of the Holy Land aroundthe Crusader states in Lebanon and Syria were better defended. One of the most lasting effects of the Crusades in this region was the contact between the crusaders mainly French and the Maronites.
Unlike most other Christian communities in the region, who swore allegiance to Constantinople or other local patriarchs, the Maronites proclaimed allegiance to the Pope in Rome. As such the Franks saw them as Roman Catholic brethren.
These initial contacts led to centuries of support for the Maronites from France and Italy, even after the later fall of the Crusader states in the region. Mamluk rule[ edit ] Muslim control of Lebanon was reestablished in the late 13th century under the Mamluk sultans of Egypt.
Lebanon was later contested between Muslim rulers until the Turkish Ottoman Empire solidified authority over the eastern Mediterranean. Ottoman control was uncontested during the early modern period, but the Lebanese coast became important for its contacts and trades with the maritime republics of VeniceGenoa other Italian city-states.
See also Levantines The mountainous territory of Mount Lebanon has long been a shelter for minority and persecuted groups, including its historic Maronite Christian majority and Druze communities.
It was an autonomous region of the Ottoman Empire. He won the confidence of the Ottomans by fighting on their side at Marj Dabaq and, apparently pleased with the behavior of the Lebanese amirs, introduced them to Salim I when he entered Damascus.
Salim I, whose treasury was depleted by the wars, decided to grant the Lebanese amirs a semiautonomous status in exchange for their acting as "tax farmers". The Ottomans, through the two main feudal families, the Maans who were Druze and the Chehabs who were Sunni Muslim Arab converts to Maronite Christianity, ruled Lebanon until the middle of the nineteenth century.
They were a tribe and dynasty of Qahtani Arabs who settled on the southwestern slopes of the Lebanon Mountains and soon adopted the Druze religion. Their authority began to rise with Fakhr ad-Din Iwho was permitted by Ottoman authorities to organize his own army, and reached its peak with Fakhr ad-Din II — The existence of "Fakhr ad-Din I" has been questioned by some scholars.
My father once said that the rich families survived as they were able to bribe and get supplies on the black market. It was the unemployed, the middle class and the poor that were dying in the streets. The alliance contained both a public economic section and a secret military one.
Fakhr-al-Din's ambitions, popularity and unauthorized foreign contacts alarmed the Ottomans who authorized Hafiz Ahmed Pasha, Muhafiz of Damascus, to mount an attack on Lebanon in in order to reduce Fakhr-al-Din's growing power. Professor Abu-Husayn has made the Ottoman archives relevant to the emir's career available.
They succeeded in maintining most of the forts such as Banias Subayba and Niha which were a mainstay of Fakhr ad-Din's power.
Before leaving, Fakhr ad-Din paid his standing army of soqbans mercenaries two years wages in order to secure their loyalty. Hosted in Tuscany by the Medici Family, Fakhr-al-Din was welcomed by the grand duke Cosimo II, who was his host and sponsor for the two years he spent at the court of the Medici.
Fakhr-al-Din had wished to enlist Tuscan or other European assistance in a "Crusade" to free his homeland from Ottoman domination, but was met with a refusal as Tuscany was unable to afford such an expedition. The prince eventually gave up the idea, realizing that Europe was more interested in trade with the Ottomans than in taking back the Holy Land.Digital Impact LLC produces large format, high-resolution, semi-permanent corrugated/mixed material POP & POS displays, product packaging and specialized permanent displays for companies of all backgrounds.
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Mr. Harmon has taught AP® European History, AP® United States History, and AP® World History. I've been working with the materials of the Salem Witch Trials of for so long as an academic historian, it's not surprising when people ask me if I've seen the play or film The Crucible, and what I think of rutadeltambor.com created works of art, inspired by actual events, for his own artistic/political intentions.
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